Mark L. Wahlberg, Extension Animal Scientist, Virginia Tech
Feed represents the largest single production expense for cattle operations. There are many different feedstuffs that can be included in rations for cattle, and there is nothing special about particular ingredients. What matters is the nutrients they provide. While beef producers rely heavily upon forages for the basis of a feeding program, forages often must be supplemented with energy or protein to meet the nutritional needs of cattle. Many alternative and by-product feeds are now available, often at a fairly low cost, to provide supplemental nutrition. This publication contains descriptions of many of the alternative and by-product feeds available in Virginia, and how they may be used in beef production systems.